The Real Danger of Food Allergies
By Gail Belsky
If your child has food allergies, you know how serious and life-altering they can be. Now, a groundbreaking study by Northwestern University’s Feinberg School of Medicine shows just how common they are.
Nearly 6 million American kids that are 18 years of age or younger (roughly 1 in 13) are allergic to at least one food, according to the 2011 study -- twice as many as previously thought. Of those, 39 percent had severe allergic reactions, and 30 percent had multiple food allergies. The most common allergies were to peanuts (25 percent), milk (21 percent), shellfish (17 percent) and tree nuts (13 percent).
Not all negative reactions to food are allergic reactions, however. Sometimes kids just have an intolerance of certain foods. Here’s how to know if your child has food allergies -- and what you should do about it.
Food Allergy vs. Food Intolerance
With an allergy, the immune system responds to a particular food as if it were an enemy, according to the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease (NIAID). After the first exposure, the body produces antibodies to fight the food. After the second exposure, the antibodies trigger the release of certain chemicals (called histamines) that cause symptoms to occur.
With food intolerance, however, the immune system isn’t involved, so the condition is not life-threatening. Intolerance is a reaction of the digestive system; potential causes can be sensitivity to food additives, recurring stress, etc. The most common nonallergic reactions are to lactose, gluten and food additives. Food intolerances are not as worrisome, and the doctor may recommend things to do to aid digestion.
Common Allergy Signs and Symptoms
An allergic reaction occurs from within a few minutes to an hour after a child is exposed, according to Children’s Hospital Boston, and can range from mild to life-threatening. (Exposure to even the smallest amount can produce a reaction.)
Common symptoms include:
- Vomiting, diarrhea, cramps
- Itching or swelling of the lips, tongue or mouth
- Wheezing or difficulty breathing
- Lowered blood pressure
If your baby or young child has milk or soy allergies, symptoms include:
- Blood in the stool
- Poor growth
If you think your child has had an allergic reaction, consult with your child’s doctor to come up with a treatment plan. If the symptoms are severe, seek immediate medical attention.
Will Food Allergies Be Outgrown?
Food allergies usually begin in early childhood, but they can develop later, according to NIAID. Your child will likely outgrow allergies to eggs, milk or soy -- but not peanuts. Allergies to tree nuts, fish and shellfish may also be lifelong allergies, according to Children’s Hospital Boston.
Treatment for Food Allergies
If you’re worried that your child has food allergies, talk to your doctor. There’s no medication to prevent food allergies; all you can do is try to avoid exposure, according to The Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia. After your child’s doctor confirms the allergy, be sure your child stays away from that particular food and other foods in the same group. If your child’s reaction is severe, the doctor may prescribe an emergency kit with epinephrine to counteract the symptoms in case of exposure.